Friday, April 12, 2019

Income Tax Slab for the Financial Year 2019-2020 (Annual Year 2020-2021) for Individuals

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The income tax slab is a table that shows the threshold limit beyond which a specific tax rate is applicable and various deductions are made as per the applicable rate. As per the union budget below are the various slabs for Individuals according to which income tax is assessed in various categories.

Income tax slabs for resident Individual below 60 years of age
Taxable income slabs           Income tax rates and cess

Up to Rs 2.5 lakh                      Nil
Rs 2,50,001 to Rs 5,00,000      5% of (Total income minus Rs 2,50,000) + 4%  
Rs 5,00,001 to Rs 10,00,000    Rs 12,500 + 20% of (Total income minus Rs 
                                              5,00,000) + 4% cess
Rs 10,00,001 and above          Rs 1,12,500 + 30% of (Total income minus Rs 
                                             10,00,000) + 4% cess

Additional Components
  1. Surcharge: In case income is more than ₹ 50 lakhs and less than ₹ 1 crore, the surcharge is applicable at a rate of 10% of the income tax. For income, more than ₹ 1 crore, a surcharge of 15% is applicable on income tax on the amount exceeding ₹ 1 crore.
  2. Health and Education Cess: “Education Cess” and “Secondary and Higher Education Cess” will be replaced by “Health and Education Cess” at the rate of 4%, on the amount of tax computed, inclusive of surcharge.
  3. The interim budget 2019 has provisioned to provide a full tax rebate to individuals having a net taxable income (income adjusted after eligible tax deductions) upto Rs 5lakhs. It means that the maximum tax rebate provided under section 87A has been increased from Rs. 2,500 to Rs. 12,500. Individuals having net taxable income upto Rs. 5lakhs can claim the tax rebate under 87A and thus effectively pay zero tax.
Eligibility Criteria for Claiming Tax Rebate Under Section 87A
In order to claim tax rebate under section 87A, you should be meeting the following conditions:
  • You must be a Resident Individual. The rebate can only be claimed by the taxpaying individuals. It cannot be claimed by HUF, firms or companies.
  • Your net taxable income for FY 2019-20 (income after deductions) should not be more than Rs. 5 lakh.
  • The maximum rebate that can be availed under section 87A is Rs. 12,500. It means that if the total tax payable is less than or equal to RS. 12,500, full tax rebate can be claimed.
Income tax slabs for resident individual between 60 and 80 years of age (Senior Citizen)
Taxable income slabs     Income tax rates and cess
Up to Rs 3 lakh                                Nil
Rs 3,00,001 to Rs 5,00,000     5% of (Total income minus Rs 3,00,000) +  
                                                    4% cess
Rs 5,00,001 to Rs 10,00,000     Rs 10,000 + 20% of (Total income minus  
                                                    Rs 5,00,000) + 4% cess
Rs 10,00,001 and above                Rs 1,10,000 + 30% of (Total income minus 
                                                    Rs 10,00,000) + 4% cess

Income tax slabs for resident individual above 80 years of age (Super Senior Citizen)

Taxable income slabs      Income tax rates and cess

Up to Rs 5 lakh                                Nil
Rs 5,00,001 to Rs 10,00,000            20% of (Total income minus Rs 
                                                     5,00,000) + 4% cess
Rs 10,00,001 and above                  Rs 1,00,000 + 30% of (Total income 
                                                     minus Rs 10,00,000) + 4% cess

Source and for other details :

Monday, April 1, 2019

Main Causes of Memory Loss and Treatment

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You walk into the kitchen only to realize you have no idea why you’re there, forget the name of someone you just met, start driving only to realize you forgot how to get to where it is that you’re going. Such lapses are usually attributed to an overload of information, but from time to time, other things hinder your ability to remember. 

Here are the  most common causes of memory lapses.

1. Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Similarly to iron, B12 aids in the creation of red blood cells, reduces lethargy and the risk of anemia, and improves vital memory processes. A recent study found that Vitamin B12 deficiency may result in erratic memory.

The research found that B12 works as a protective layer for myelin – the substance that coats our nerves. When there isn’t enough B12 in your system, the layer is not thick enough and gets damaged. These damages slow down nerve impulses, which can also lead to memory lapses.

B12 deficiency can be caused by old age – the older we get, our stomach secretes less acid, making it harder for our bodies to absorb nutrients from food. Another cause can be unhealthy diet choices, Anemia, and Crohn’s disease. B12 is most common in fish, meat, and dairy, so consult your doctor about the best of B12 for you.

2. High Blood Pressure

If you’re under 45 and tend to be “forgetful”, you may want to test your blood pressure. In a research conducted at the University of Alabama, it was found that people who have higher blood pressure tend to suffer from memetic lapses, as well as a decrease in cognitive skills, when compared to people with normal blood pressure.

High blood pressure damages the inner walls of the arteries, causing them to tear and form scar tissue, which hardens the arteries. Harder arteries allow less blood to travel through them, reducing the amounts needed for the brain to function properly, and may lead to memory problems.

The good news is that a healthy diet, physical exercise, and weight-loss can help reduce the risk of such arterial hardening.

3. Hypothyroidism

If you’re tired, gaining weight, feeling depressed and your memory is on the fritz, you may be suffering from hypothyroidism.

Hypothyroidism often occurs slowly and gradually, lowering the levels of the hormone thyroxine (T4), which has a critical role in our body’s energy production. Low T4 causes a slower metabolism and slower cognitive functions, causing lapses in memory.

Common causes of hypothyroidism can be autoimmune diseases such as Hashimoto’s, where the body attacks itself. Alternatively, viral infections and even abuse of antibiotics may also induce hypothyroidism.

4. Menopause

A common theory makes the connection between forgetfulness and menopause with women was recently corroborated. A research conducted by the University of California confirms that as estrogen levels dwindle, memory lapses tend to occur. Estrogen protects neurotransmitters, and without it, they become less efficient. Such cases can be treated with HRT.

5. Migraines

If you suffer from migraines, you may be at risk of suffering from Transient Global Amnesia (TGA) in your 50’s. TGA is a state where a person cannot recall events from the previous day, cannot remember where they are or how they got there while still remembering who they are and whom other people are.

It is customary to see this type of amnesia as a result of a genetic flaw, leading to a spread of nerve impulses in the brain. TGA can temporarily paralyze the memory, and just migraines, can be triggered by sudden immersion in hot or cold water, extreme emotional distress, or even sexual intercourse. Luckily, TGA is not very common, rarely occurs more than once in a lifetime and is reversible.

6. Long Flights

Long flights can leave us exhausted and weary. These symptoms are usually caused by inconsistent sleep patterns, as well as jet lag.

A University of California research discovered that the feeling of drowsiness, memory lapses and the difficulty in processing information can extend for quite some time after the flight, and even after the feelings of jet lag have passed. When we sleep, our hippocampus processes our memories, so not enough sleep can cause memory lapses.

7. Pregnancy

Pregnant women are often stigmatized as having bad memory, but in a recent research conducted in Australia, researchers compared the performance of pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. The results were conclusive - pregnant women under performed in memory-related tasks when compared to their non-pregnant counterparts. Researchers hypothesized that the reasons are the changes in lifestyle and diet.

8. Chemotherapy

Another unpleasant side effect of chemotherapy is memory loss, often referred to as chemo brainby patients.

The chemotherapy can affect the way brain cells function, as shown in a Stanford University research that showed how women who undergo chemotherapy for breast cancer also suffered memory lapses when compared with those who did not engage in chemotherapy.

This is usually a reversible situation, and memory functions return to normal once chemo is concluded, but in some cases the improvement takes years. Taking aspirin, which increases the blood flow to the brain, can be a good way to prevent or treat “chemo brain”, but you should first consult with your oncologist.

9. Anesthesia

When undergoing major operations, anesthesia is often the only way a patient can go through the procedure without suffering major trauma. The downside is possible memory loss and reduced cognitive functions in the days following the operation. The University of Florida found that about 40% of patients who were over 60, suffered from memory loss after an operation, and 12.7% suffered serious cognitive problems in the following 3 months.

10. Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a type of “short circuit” in the brain, causing seizures, and which affects over 50 million people worldwide. During an episode, electrical impulses in the brain get redirected, leading to problems such as temporary loss of motor skills, loss of cognitive functions and, memory loss.

11. Arthritis and Asthma Medication

Corticosteroids are steroids the body produces, and can be taken as treatment of asthma and arthritis. Intake of high doses for a duration of six months or more may lead to memory problems.

Despite being a rare occurrence, corticosteroids can actually kill brain cells and cause cerebral atrophy in the hippocampus, in particular. Changing the dosage can help, but your physician should be consulted with regards to other possible side effects.

12. Depression

Depression is associated with low levels of chemicals in the brain, such as serotonin or norepinephrine. These chemicals can affect memory-related processes in the brain. Antidepressants and/or psychological treatment can help with the memory problems.

13. Excessive Alcohol Consumption

The more alcohol you consume, the less capable your brain is to store short term memories. Alcohol affects the hippocampus, reducing its functions, including the formation of new memories, which is why we sometimes forget what we did after we drink.

Long-term alcohol abuse can lead to Korsakoff’s syndrome, where the ability to form short-term memories is lost, making it difficult to recall recent information.

A slow, controlled rehabilitation can stop the process of memory loss for at least 25% of patients.


14.Head injury

A severe hit to the head -- from a fall or automobile accident, for example -- can injure the brain and cause both short- and long-term memory loss. Memory may gradually improve over time.


stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is stopped due to the blockage of a blood vessel to the brain or leakage of a vessel into the brain. Strokes often cause short-term memory loss. A person who has had a stroke may have vivid memories of childhood events but be unable to recall what he or she had for lunch.


Smoking harms memory by reducing the amount of oxygen that gets to the brain. Studies have shown that people who smoke find it more difficult to put faces with names than do nonsmokers. Illicit drugs can change chemicals in the brain that can make it hard to recall memories.

17.Sleep deprivation
Both quantity and quality of sleep are important to memory. Getting too little sleep or waking frequently in the night can lead to fatigue, which interferes with the ability to consolidate and retrieve information
A number of prescription and over-the-counter medications can interfere with or cause loss of memory. Possible culprits include: antidepressants, antihistamines, anti-anxiety medications, muscle relaxants, tranquilizers, sleeping pills, and pain medications given after surgery.

Memory Loss Treatment

Treatment for memory loss depends on the cause. In many cases, it may be reversible with treatment. For example, memory loss from medications may resolve with a change in medication. Nutritional supplements can be useful against memory loss caused by a nutritional deficiency. 
And treating depression may be helpful for memory when depression is a factor. In some cases -- such as following a stroke -- therapy may help people remember how to do certain tasks such as walking or tying shoes. In others, memory may improve over time.
Treatments may also be specific to conditions related to memory loss. For example, drugs are available to treat memory problems related to Alzheimer's disease, and drugs to help lower blood pressure can help reduce risk of more brain damage from dementia related to high blood pressure.