Tuesday, June 5, 2018

Nipah virus infection , symptoms and treatment

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At least three people have died due to a rare infection caused by Nipah virus in Kerala. The National Institute of Virology in Pune has attributed three deaths in Changaroth village of Perambra to the virus. The Kerala health department has also reported eight other deaths which are suspected to be linked to the virus.
Kerala Health Minister KK Shylaja asked people not to panic and believe rumours generated on social media. Medical camps have also been oraganised to assist people who may be developing symptoms of viral fever. A control room has also been set up in order to inform people about the symptoms and treatment of the virus.
Nipah is infection spread through fruit bats and can both affect humans as well as domestic animals including dogs, cats, goats, horses and sheep. Also referred as NiV virus, the infection in humans has a range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory syndrome and fatal encephalitis.
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Transmission. Transmission of Nipah virus to humans may occur after direct contact with infected bats, infected pigs, or from other NiV infected people.
Outbreak of Nipah virus infection
The disease first broke out in Malaysia in 1998 and appeared in domestic pigs. In the subsequent NiV outbreaks, there was an intermediate host. The disease first appeared in human beings in 2001 in Bangladesh. The infection was a result of consuming date palm sap that had been contaminated by infected fruit bats. In Bangladesh and India, there have been reports of possible human-to-human transmission of the disease. Up to March 31, 2012 a total of 209 human cases of NiV infection in Bangladesh were reported; 161 (77%) of them died, the WHO website said.
In India, the disease was first reported in 2001 and then in 2007. Seventy-one cases with 50 deaths were reported during the two outbreaks. Both the times, the disease was reported in areas of West Bengal bordering Bangladesh.
Indonesia, Thailand and Timor-Leste have identified antibodies against NiV in the bat population and the source of the virus has been isolated. Nipah cases tend to occur in a cluster or as an outbreak, although 18% of cases in Bangladesh were isolated. NiV outbreaks mostly occur between the period of December and May.
What are the Symptoms of Nipah virus and how it spreads?
The infection presents as an encephalitic syndrome marked by fever, headache, drowsiness, disorientation, mental confusion, coma, and potentially death. The virus can be transferred from a human through close contact, body fluids, saliva and cough.
Who are the major carriers of the virus?
Bats shed the virus in their excrement and secretions, but they are symptomless carriers. NiV is highly contagious among pigs and is spread by coughing.
What are the symptoms of the infection? How is it treated?
NiV infection in humans has a range of effects, from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory distress syndrome and fatal encephalitis. The primary treatment is intensive supportive care. Treatment is focused on managing fever and the neurological symptoms. Ribavirin may alleviate the symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and convulsions.
How can it be prevented?
As options for treatment are limited, the focus should be on prevention. Strategies include preventing farm animals from eating fruit contaminated by bats and avoiding consumption of contaminated date palm sap. Healthcare workers caring for patients should put in place standard precautions including washing hands. Wearing a gown, mask, cap and gloves is also recommended.

Wednesday, May 23, 2018

15 Great Fuel Economy Tips

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Maybe you’re looking for tips to improve your car’s fuel economy, or maybe you want to decrease your ecological footprint. Whatever your reasoning, the outcome is the same, you will save money. 

Below you’ll find 15 great ways to improve your fuel economy.
A- Vehicle Maintenance
1. Keep Your Air Filter Clean
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Air filters should be changed every 12,000 miles or so. Dirty filters restrict the flow of air to the engine, making it consume more fuel as it works harder to run.

2. Check Your Tire Pressure and Balance Regularly
Making sure your tires are inflated properly makes a huge impact on improving fuel economy. Under-inflated tires can actually decrease efficiency by up to 10% by creating extra drag between the road and the tire.

3. Grease Your Wheel Barrings
Properly greased wheel barrings help to prevent friction as your wheels turn, decreasing drag and increasing your fuel economy.
 B- Vehicle Modifications

4. Consider Converting to Manual Transmission
Manual transmissions get better mileage than automatic ones since the driver controls when to switch the gears. Obviously, switching to a manual transmission is a big undertaking, but you should keep this in mind when shopping for a new car or replacing an old transmission.

5. Look into New Body Modifications
Some drivers, especially those who travel long distances frequently, have added body modifications such as a tail cone, skirt, or grill box to make the vehicle more aerodynamic, thus improving fuel economy.

6. Install an After-Market Air-Filter
The filters can increase the air flow to the engine, helping it run smoother and more fluidly to increase fuel mileage. You will need to know your vehicle’s make and model so you can buy the air filter that fits your needs.
 C- Simple Commuting Choices
7. Avoid Bad Weather
It’s not always possible, but when it is, it’s best to avoid driving in snow, rain, or high winds as this will impact your driving (making you drive slower) as well as the flow of traffic.

8. Skip Things Like Drive-Thru Windows
Even if you’re the only one at the window, you’ll still spend unnecessary time idling and using more fuel than if you park and start back up again.

9. Listen to Mellow Music
This may seem insignificant but listening to heavy music gets you driving faster and more aggressively. Calmer music helps you to slow down and drive easily – just another step in improving your fuel economy.
 D- Driving on the Highway
10. Reduce Drag by Closing Your Windows
Leaving your windows open creates more drag than using the AC or opening the air vents for the fan. This drag will slow you down, decreasing your fuel economy.

11. Use Overdrive
This changes your transmission into its highest gear as soon as possible, which is beneficial for your fuel economy.

12. Use Cruise Control – Sometimes
This is great for when you’re traveling on flat roads or if you’re breaking the habit of having a lead foot. However, for hilly roads, when you can coast down and use the momentum for the next hill, cruise control will get in your way of improving fuel economy.
 E- While Driving in Town
13. Shut Down the Engine When Feasible
Some people do this any time they have stopped for longer than a few seconds. However, this can cause hazardous in traffic and possibly lead to burning more fuel on starting the engine if you don’t have to wait too long. But, at long lights, or in traffic accidents where you’re at a standstill, shift into neutral and turn the engine off to save fuel.

14. Find the Best Route
When it comes to improving fuel economy, your route matters a lot. If you can take a route with fewer hills, stops, and traffic, you will save fuel because the conditions are better to increase fuel mileage.

15. Accelerate Slower
Gassing it when the light turns green burns more fuel than necessary. Instead, allow yourself to let off the brake and slowly accelerate up to speed.

Saturday, May 12, 2018

How to live happily after retirement?

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This is an interesting article on Retirement and how to face retirement based on the Speech by  Mr.P.P Ramachnadran who worked in Reserve Bank of India for 40 years .I reproduce below a portion of his speech which is very interesting and useful to persons who are going to retire:

In the times of our fathers and grandfathers, retirement was not much of a problem.

There are three reasons for this.

First, Life Expectancy.

Fifty years ago, the life expectancy at the age of retirement fixed at 55--was 60. 

A study of Government records revealed that very few people enjoyed pension for more than five years at that time. 

Most people died before sixty and consequently spending five years after retirement did not pose any major problem.

Today Life Expectancy at retirement at 58 or 60-- is 75 years which means half of your working life is still left after retirement.

To give you an example two Senior Officers of RBI died at 93 years—35 years after retirement.

The second reason is the change in the family structure.

Half a century ago most people were in a joint family. The day you laid down office, you still had a large family around you. 

Surely, in a large family there was always something you could do that was meaningful and made you feel you were contributing to the family.

Today the family has become nuclear—husband, wife, children. By the time one retires, the children have gone away. 

In good old times, daughters used to get married and promptly go away. Nowadays sons get married and shift on and for First Night itself !

What is left is the old couple—You for Me and Me for you. This is not particularly easy to accept and adjust to after retirement.

The third reason is the problem of “Roots.”

In halcyon days, people used to have a “native place” and an “ancestral home”. 

They looked forward to going there and settling down after retirement. Today except for Leave Travel Concession purposes, there is nothing left in terms of native place. People often are confused as to where to settle.

These three problems make retirement planning a crucial item. If you have planned for retirement you can anticipate and tackle these problems. People are not accustomed to the idea of staying by themselves. If one asks an audience of prospective retirees and their wives “How many of you expect to stay after retirement with your children, hardly one hand goes up. If some husband raises his hand, his wife immediately slaps it down saying, “I’ll be damned if I am going to stay with my daughter-in-law!”

So it is a tough problem to think about old people staying—just the two of them. This makes planning all the more significant.

The most difficult problem that we face after retirement is the Psychological one.

When an executive retires, he is at the peak of his career—his status, prestige and financial acumen. 

The moment he lays down office, all these desert him. He discovers that “Everything becomes Less and Less”. 

The first thing he notices is the way his status and prestige are affected. Even at home, the retired person is no longer the important person. If he demands of his wife an early breakfast, she will promptly admonish him, “You are retired now. So take it easy. Let those employed go first !”. He is no longer “Numero Uno”.

A friend of mine who was a Senior Executive in RBI was getting 500 Greeting Cards and Diaries for the New Year. After one year of retirement it dwindled to fifty and this year he got ten. Greeting cards and diaries are surely an indicator of the respect you are held in.

The most immediate problem on retirement is time-arrangement.

We all have twenty four hours at our disposal, whether we like it or not. When you are a Senior Executive you work for ten, twelve or even fifteen hours and you feel “Suppose I had two hours more how nice it would be!. Life would be easier.”

After retirement we have twenty four hours and nothing to do! Result – misery and this is one thing one likes to spread! No man wants to be miserable alone. He will make as many people miserable as he can. A man who has nothing to do will harass people around him. Turning on head the Benthamite principle of maximization of welfare—maximisation of ill-fare!.

There are two solutions to this problem.

i)One is to continue to do the same work one was doing at the time of retirement.

The first option is very convenient but where is such an opportunity for the majority? There is the temptation to wangle out an extension but this does lead to compromising principles which many succumb to regrettably. I have seen Senior Officers accepting jobs as liaison officers and standing outside the cabin of their subordinates and seek favours from them. But how long-lasting is the solution. Extension merely postpones the problem. It crops up again quite swiftly.

ii)The second option is to do something different, i.e., option to get another job.

An executive can get another job provided he is willing to sacrifice self-respect. Generally jobs are given by the previous employer’s suppliers. Cases are legion where army, navy, air force officers are caught for espionage in such employment.

In commercial organizations Officers are employed to get orders and collect bills speedily from their erstwhile Employers. 

So you will agree that this is no solution.

Post-retired life. 

The retired official is likely to fall into four dysfunctional time options.

The first is “Withdrawal”.

Many retired people, the day they retire from Office withdraw from Life and within a few months they just pass away. 

When you ask a Doctor he will tell you I can give a Medical term but this is case of “simple lack of will to live”.

The second time management option is “ritual”.

A person can create a ritual for himself. He gets up at a specific time, does different activities at a specific time and this invariably results in misery for others if that specific time frame is not adhered to. While he has in essence nothing to do, he is trying to make his activities meaningful. This leads to a meaningless ritual.

The third option is Pastime.

Many people get together and embark on a combined ritual which is called pastime. This too does not add to the meaningfulness of life.

The last option turns out to be even mischievous. It is playing games—

Not physical ones like badminton, tennis but psychological ones where you try to manipulate people, get into their problems, complicate them and generally enlarge the tension around you. Many a respectable person indulges in this and creates problems where none existed.

The alternative to these are Functional options.

The first is become a Consultant.

Lurking inside every executive is a Consultant. But for this considerable expertise is required. All are not Consultants.

The second option is to start your own Business or industry.

But this calls for entrepreneurial qualities which an executive may lack. Many are the cases where lakhs of rupees have turned into thousands!.

The third option is to involve oneself in professional activities.

For this one must build up one’s position even before retirement. Many cliques operate to prevent outsiders from encroachment.

The fourth is to get into spiritual activities.

While nobody is required between you and God, nowadays, we find more and more godmen, swamijis, pseudo Gurus some even US returned. There is a temptation to follow some Swamiji or even become one yourself. This is a very slippery slope. Beware –there are more hoaxes in the religious field than anywhere else!.

The last and most meaningful option is to cultivate a Hobby.

Use your creative abilities and do something that you enjoy doing. You should start this even while in service.

One can even take up a hobby that is financially productive. As time passes one learns.


Some basic qualities one must cultivate.

  • There are two ways to look at every situation in life. Is the Cup half empty or is the cup half full. One man was not worried about his becoming bald. He declared “I have less hair to comb!”. Another man in identical situation moaned, “I have more face to wash !”.
  • Always remember that you are loved, even when it does not seem like it.
  • Believe in yourself and your values. Don’t sell out when things go wrong. Don’t let anything get you down. Always bounce back.
  • Set goals for your future and never settle for anything less.
  • Realise that there are others in this world with bigger problems than you. Appreciate the good things of Life. Sunrise, Sunset, Flowers, Birds. Be thankful for the good times you have with your loved ones. Spend more time with your family and friends.
  • Appreciate the simple things of Life and don’t get caught up in the material things of life. Be an Optimist and see the Cup as being Half Full. Before long your attitude will rub of on others. You can make the world a better place to live by simply making yourself a happier person.